GE Emergency Toroid Repair

Forced Outage Emergency Recovery Tip

January 13, 2018
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GE Condenser Emergency Repair

GE Condenser Emergency Repair

January 13, 2018
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GE Emergency Toroid Repair

Forced Outage Emergency Recovery Tip

July 19, 2017

Forced Outage Emergency Recovery Tip Desperate repair on GE crossovers that will make you look like a genius Scotty! Get those warp drives back on line now! Power plant maintenance personnel managed to fix a GE steam turbine crossover expansion joint blowout with a clever repair; earning a hats-off from the impressed. Oakridge Bellows engineering

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GE Condenser Emergency Repair

GE Condenser Emergency Repair

November 30, 2016

Recently a customer was having a significant leak in the hood bellows and needed an on-line fix in order to make it to their scheduled outage for the following month. Brain-storming with the Oakridge Bellows engineering group a temporary fix was put in place that got them to their outage. Rolled angle with rope and

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Part 2 – Pressure Thrust

June 3, 2016

Length: 1.00 (Click image to launch video)

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Fact or Myth? Metal Absorbs Water

July 28, 2020
Click to View Article Myth busted Metal does not absorb, and therefore cannot release, water. The silence of the lambs Every welder has observed the same phenomena when pre-heating a steel plate with a torch; water beads up on the metal about a foot from flame. Over the years many a welder has attempted to Read More

Lugs on Pipe and Vessels *NEW*

November 30, 2015

Load bearing lugs generate local bending stresses on thin walled shells such as pipe or vessels; these stresses can easily be reduced by optimizing the material arrangement. There are several methods for calculating the shell stresses which are covered in publications on the theory of plates and shells. This short video introduces visual concepts on

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Edge Welded Bellows

Edge Welded Bellows *NEW*

September 5, 2014

Edge welded metal bellows provide large movements with very low spring rates in round or rectangular ducting systems. This style is can be designed in short over all lengths. This is a video that is of interest to design and maintenance engineers. Length: 0.57 (Click image to launch video)

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Acid condensate on metal bellows expansion joint

Acid condensate on metal bellows expansion joint

May 26, 2014

High temperature flue gas ducting often has metal bellows expansion joints that are internally insulation. Make sure the bellows remains above 400F to prevent acids from condensating and causing corrosion failures This is a video that is of interest to design and maintenance engineers. Length: 1.33 (Click image to launch video)

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When Weld Repairs Work – And We Don’t Know Why

February 26, 2020
Click to View Article This month – When weld repairs work - and we don’t know why Fixing problems that shouldn’t exist and then moving on A puzzling crack Got a call years ago from a power plant that kept shutting down to weld repair a bellows attachment weld on their old Westinghouse steam cross-over Read More
Bellows Damage Counseling

Bellows Damage Counseling

August 31, 2016

Damaged relationships Several years ago my wife put a dent in the side of my truck while negotiating a tight turn in a school parking lot. I have not had that dent fixed. I could give lots of reasons for not fixing it: it doesn’t affect the function of my truck, too costly to repair,

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Water Hammer in Piping

Water Hammer In Piping

June 29, 2016
Click to View Article The big bang You shut off the sink faucet and immediately hear a bang and then the after-shock rattling in the piping. You, my friend, have just experienced an effect known as water hammer. Not only is water hammer a common house hold annoyance, it bounces around steam and process piping Read More
Thermal Shock on Ducting Systems

The Heartache of Thermal Shock

April 18, 2016

Why your stainless steel ducting system is breaking up with you Hot tempered My wife warped an empty stainless steel cooking pan by starting the burner on high; this even after my repeated lessons to her on principles of thermal shock. My engineering educational efforts are always met with eyerolls and the occasional rude raspberry.

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Piping System Reliability

Piping System Reliability

November 3, 2015

Piping factoid Pumps, turbines, and other equipment connections last longer when expansion joints are designed into hot piping and ducting systems. Remembering what they do Think of a metal bellows as if it was a fuse in an electrical system – the bellows takes all the thermal growth movement so that the piping system and

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Thermal Growth of Rings and Things

Thermal Growth of Rings and Cylinders

May 8, 2015

Expanding or contracting hole? Thermal growth Pop quiz! Oh stop complaining and get out a number 2 pencil. Show your work. As the metal disk in figure 1 gets hotter, the hole in the center will – a) Get smaller b) Get larger c) Stay the same Fig. 1 – From the book , Thinking

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Steam Vacuum and Popcorn

Party Conversations about Steam

February 19, 2015

Steam completes us I have two books on my shelf about steam. Think about that; not one, but two. I have never read either of these books. It takes special people to write books about steam. Never, ever, Under.Any.Circumstance, sit next to such people at a party. Most of us make our living around equipment

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More Metal Bellows Repair Tips

More metal bellows repair tips

December 18, 2014

This month – Protecting Piping From Anchor Failures – UPDATE Exciting new product – TIG wire with flux With the use of flux-core TIG wire, bellows weld repairs can now be made without the need for purging on the backside. The flux migrates to the backside of the weld shielding it from any oxygen. This

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In Line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints

How an In-Line Externally Pressurized Pressure-Balanced Works

December 18, 2014

Whoa, what’s up with all the bellows? When you first look at a cross-section of an in-line pressure balanced externally pressurized expansion joint, it can look intimidatingly complicated. It is not. And to save me key strokes, let’s call it a ‘PB’ from now on. The externally pressurized in‐line pressure balanced expansion joint (PB) The

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Steam Turbine Cross Over Expansion Joint

Power Plant How a steam turbine cross over expansion joint works

January 13, 2018
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Power Plant Boiler Duct EJ Replacement

March 4, 2020
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Power Plant HRSG-Pen Seals

January 13, 2018
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Steam Turbine Cross Over Expansion Joint

Power Plant How a steam turbine cross over expansion joint works

September 4, 2015

The cross over expansion joint located in the piping between the steam turbine and condenser hood is often not understood well and often ignored. This animated video gives a rare glimpse into how this expansion joint protects the steam turbine. To avoid long unscheduled outages, Steam turbine manufacturers recommend having these rebuilt after 25 years

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Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

Power Plant Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

October 31, 2014

The expansion joints down in the LP turbine are rarely inspected due to limited access to the covered metal bellows. Inspection and replacement recommendations are discussed. This is a video that is of interest to maintenance, steam and turbine engineers, and inspectors. Steam Extraction Expansion Joints The expansion joints down in the LP turbine are

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Power Plant Coal Pulverizer Ducting Expansion Joints

January 13, 2018
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Steam Turbine Cross Over Expansion Joint

Power Plant Steam Turbine Cross Over Expansion Joint

October 31, 2014

When a steam turbine is upgraded to operate at a higher pressure the expansion joints need a new stress analysis along with a hydro-test. This is a video that is of interest to maintenance and turbine engineers, and plant managers. Steam Turbine Cross Over Expansion Joint When a steam turbine is upgraded to operate at

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2-Ply Testable Bellows For Steam Turbines

Power Plant 2-Ply Testable Bellows For Steam Turbines

January 13, 2018
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2-Ply Testable Bellows For Steam Turbines

Power Plant 2-Ply Testable Bellows For Steam Turbines

October 31, 2014

Most power plants have steam turbine cross-over expansion joints with 2-ply testable bellows. These redundant bellows are often overlooked during the piping system inspection. A demonstration is provided with a recommended test fixture for safe and easy testing between the bellows plies. This is a video that is of interest to maintenance and turbine engineers,

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Power Plant GE Cross Over Steam Turbine Expansion Joint

January 13, 2018
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Power Plant GE Cross Over Steam Turbine Expansion Joint

October 31, 2014

A short video about the GE Cross Over Steam Turbine Expansion Joint. GE Cross Over Steam Turbine Expansion Joint By pre-ordering replacement bellows cartridges for GE steam turbine cross-over expansion joints, you can get as quick as a one week turn-around on the piping re-build. A large time consumer in refurbishing a GE cross-over is

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AEP Box Fold Expansion Joints

AEP-Box Fold Expansion Joints

January 13, 2018
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AEP Box Fold Expansion Joints

AEP-Box Fold Expansion Joints

October 27, 2014

Oakridge Bellows recently fabricated box fold style expansion joints which shipped to the John E. Amos plant in West Virginia. Quarter sections for easier field installation These metal expansion joints, supplied through the Oakridge Bellows representive, Baker-Bohnert are duplicates of the original parts supplied with the OEM boiler that have been in successful operation for

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Avoiding Design Problems in Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

Avoiding Design Problems in Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

January 13, 2018
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Avoiding Design Problems in Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

Avoiding design problems in Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

October 27, 2014

Avoid Bad Design Features In The LP Turbine Expansion Joints Lessons learned in steam extraction piping – Part 1 The Bellows Bottom Line is a publication of Maximizing reliability Most expansion joints inside the LP turbine last over 30 years. I’ve seen a few failures that could have been easily avoided. And when expansion joints

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Case Study Westinghouse Rrefurbishments

Case Study – Westinghouse Refurbishments

January 13, 2018
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Case Study Westinghouse Rrefurbishments

Case Study – Westinghouse Refurbishments

October 27, 2014

October 2006 – When power utilities such as Luminant Power need help with their expansion joint outage planning they trust Oakridge Bellows. The Luminant plants have a large number of aging Westinghouse Steam turbines in their fleet. Oakridge Bellows identified for Luminant the longest lead-time items on the cross-over piping to order in advance –

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Coal Pulverizer

Case Study – Coal Pulverizer

January 13, 2018
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Coal Pulverizer

Case Study – Coal Pulverizer

October 27, 2014

August 2009 – A coal fired power plant on the east coast had a coal duct explosion that ripped through their fabric expansion joint and continued to burn when exposed to the atmosphere. The utility had replaced their 25 year old original hot air pulverizer metal expansion joints in favor of a less expensive fabric

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Condenser Seal Refurbishments

Bellows Condenser Seal Refurbishments

January 13, 2018
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Condenser Seal Refurbishments

Bellows Condenser Seal Refurbishments

October 27, 2014

Bellows Condenser Seal Refurbishments When replacing a GE or Westinghouse condenser seal, both time and money can be saved by refurbishing the old assembly. The most time-saving option, of course, is to have ordered a complete new unit in advance of an outage. If that didn’t happen then a refurbishment may be your best, and

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Condenser Seal Replacements

Condenser Seal Replacements

January 13, 2018
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Condenser Seal Replacements

Condenser Seal Replacements

October 27, 2014

Condenser Seal Replacements Between every GE or Westinghouse steam turbine cross-over piping and the condenser is a metal bellows seal. This bellows assembly isolates thermal movements between these pieces of equipment. These seals should last for 25 years without leaking and the OEM’s recommend replacement at that point. The bellows seal will eventually leak. Although

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Flue Gas Expansion Joint Options

The Ultimate Flue Gas Ducting Expansion Joint

January 13, 2018
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Flue Gas Expansion Joint Options

The Ultimate Flue Gas Ducting Expansion Joint

October 27, 2014

Reliability AND cost savings The most cost effective, longest-lasting flue gas metal rectangular expansion joint is a round corner, U-profile, integral flange design made with a heavy gauge of Corten or carbon steel material. Features not to be compromised The two features that will ensure long life on a metal rectangular expansion joint are a

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Penetrating Seal Replacements

Replacing HRSG penetration seals without compromising service life

January 13, 2018
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Penetrating Seal Replacements

Replacing HRSG penetration seals without compromising service life

October 27, 2014

Many HRSG owners in the past have discovered this truth – replacing a leaking metal bellows penetration seal with the original profile results in a new part that has HALF the life as the original. This is a direct result of the replacement part having to be installed in halves – the difficult field welding

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Steam Turbine Cross Over Cartridges GE

GE Cross-Over Expansion Joint Repairs

January 13, 2018
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Steam Turbine Cross Over Cartridges GE

GE Cross-Over Expansion Joint Repairs

October 27, 2014

So much for pre-planning You’re in the middle of a four week outage and find out that the bellows on the steam turbine cross-over expansion joint is leaking. The standard option is to ship it to an experienced expansion joint manufacturer who will replace the bellows and retest. Unfortunately the current expedited lead time is

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Turbine Replacement Bellows

Turbine Replacement Bellows

January 13, 2018
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Turbine Replacement Bellows

Turbine Replacement Bellows

October 27, 2014

Replacement Bellows and Expansion Joints in Gas Turbine Repairs Fuel Nozzle Bellows Gas turbines, such as GE’s 7FA, have bellows in the fuel nozzles. It is recommended that these bellows be replaced during major turbine over-hauls. Reverse engineered fuel nozzle bellows Expansion Ring Replacement bellows for hard to find parts such as this expansion ring

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GE Toroid vs U Profile Caution

GE Turbine Cross Over Rebuilds

January 13, 2018

GE Cross-Over Toroid Bellows Replacements Protect the turbine with identical OEM designs Beware of substitutions Think twice, no think three times before allowing your original GE cross-over toroid expansion joint to be replaced by a different bellows design. Many GE cross-over expansion joints have a toroid bellows profile, and some users get sold that the

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GE Toroid vs U Profile Caution

GE Turbine Cross Over Rebuilds

October 27, 2014
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Flanges on Expansion Joints

Flanges On Expansion Joints (*NEW)

October 17, 2014

Low metabolism, poor self-image, or just bored? Let’s just state what we’re all thinking – flanges are the fatsos of fittings. Oh come on, stop acting like I’m Joan Rivers; it’s so obvious and somebody had to say it. OK, so that’s insensitive. The question is; why is that flange such a large chunk of

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Avoiding Acid Condensate On Bellows

Avoiding Acid Condensate On Bellows

September 26, 2014
Click to View Article Cool is over-rated I realized my kids had become too cool for me when they started jumping out of the car, without saying goodbye, in the school parking lot. In retrospect maybe it was because I was yelling “I LOVE YOU! MAKE GOOD CHOICES!” out the window at the top of Read More

Understanding Expansion Joint Pressure Thrust

March 6, 2020
Click to View Article The force is always with us A bellows exerts a longitudinal force when internally pressurized. What’s the big deal? So does a pipe. Ahhh, yes, but that force is quietly restrained by the rigidity of the pipe. When a longitudinally flexible element (AKA a bellows) is inserted, there is no longer Read More
Understanding Bellows Internal Pressure

Understanding Bellows Pressure Capacity

July 11, 2014
Click to View Article K.I.S.S. – Keep It Simple Moron Ever read a copy of Scientific American? I pretended to once. Too many words, not enough pictures. I can tell you from personal experience that it does not impress girls when you are holding a publication upside down. Give me simple every time. And pictures; Read More
Titanium Bellows

Titanium Bellows

July 10, 2014

Pulp & Paper Challenges To 317L The bleaching service in pulp & paper plants has always been tough on expansion joints. Stainless steels such as 316L and 317L have held up as the go-to material for years. Changes in the bleaching concentrations and increased temperatures have created corrosives that have shortened the service lives of

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Cor-Ten The Forgotten Steel

Cor-Ten – The forgotten steel

July 10, 2014

COR-TEN Steel In Flue Gas Ducting Expansion Joints The funny named steel that won’t go away. Ducting, Old School Many older power plant boilers have metal rectangular expansion joints made with steel by the name of CORTEN. This steel gets its name because of its improved corrosion resistance (‘Cor’) and its higher tensile strength (‘Ten’).

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Hinged Expansion Joints in FRP Piping

Hinged Expansion Joints in FRP Piping

July 10, 2014

Where metal meets plastic Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) piping and vessels have a higher thermal growth rate than carbon steel and even stainless steel piping. FRP does have more flexibility, and in smaller diameters, pipe loops are the way to go for taking up those higher deflections. For larger diameter FRP piping, consider using a

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Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints

Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints

July 10, 2014

Don’t buckle under pressure For large axial growth, a long bellows with lots of convolutions is needed for all that axial movement. Unfortunately a long bellows will buckle or ‘squirm’ easily when internally pressurized. A funny thing about bellows, when the pressure is external, they straighten right out. Yes, you read that right, external pressure

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Alloy 625 vs 625 LCF Bellows

625 vs 625 LCF Bellows Performance

July 10, 2014

625 – What’s in a name? Exactly what is the difference between alloy 625 and alloy 625LCF®? First of all LCF® is a trademark of Special Metals®. Under advice of our legal counsel®, I note a Trademark® to avoid getting our pants® sued off®. Yes, I know, EVERYBODY refers to the ‘enhanced’ alloy 625 for

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Van Stone Bellows

Vanstone Flanges On Bellows Expansion Joints

July 10, 2014

A new twist on an old product Sometimes there are such great ideas that when you see them you think “I could’ve thought of that”. The ideas I put in that category are – the wrist rocket, the slap chop, TiVo, and the van-stone flange. I could’ve thought up all of those… OK, maybe not

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Tied Universal Expansion Joints - Best Bang for the Buck

Tied Universal Expansion Joints – Best Bang For The Buck

July 10, 2014

Stuck in a rut? Get out I believe in the responsible use of expansion joints, BUT… anybody that automatically specifies an axial expansion joint in a smaller diameter piping system should be pummeled repeatedly with a 6″ 300#RFWN flange. OK, that’s a bit harsh as most piping systems with expansion joints fit that description. I,

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Got Liners

Liners On Metal Expansion Joints

July 10, 2014

Liners are used to protect the bellows element of an expansion joint assembly. It’s not always a cheap accessory so be sure a liner is needed before specifying one. Here’s what you need to know: Not too swift Excessively high flow velocity of air, steam, or fluids across the inside of a bellows will cause

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Fillet Welding on Gussets and Lugs

Best Practices On Fillet Welding

July 10, 2014

Best practices in all things Fillet welds can have diminishing strength returns as they get larger; in addition a fillet weld can be compromised by stopping it in the wrong spot. We’ll look at both of these conditions. At this point you’re thinking “Welding? Hey! Where’s my practical advice on expansion joints!?” Look, I have

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Steam Extraction Expansion Joints

Steam Extraction Expansion Joint Inspection

July 10, 2014

You want me to go where? You drew the short straw and have to climb down into the bowels of the low pressure turbine to inspect the steam extraction piping expansion joints. Not a bad gig – if your hobby is spelunking. There is only one problem; you can’t inspect what you can’t see. The

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Multiple PLY Bellows

The International Dispute over Multi-Ply Bellows

July 10, 2014

We’re right – no, oui are North American expansion joint manufacturers tend to use a single heavier ply in bellows designs (with the exception of 2-ply testable bellows) as opposed to European manufacturers who use several thinner plies. So who’s right? Why, we are of course. As I recall that was the powder keg issue

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Metal vs Fabric Ducting Expansion Joints

Metal vs Fabric Ducting Expansion Joint

July 10, 2014

They don’t make ‘em like they used to Your original metal boiler ducting expansion joints were 25+ years old, so you replaced them, or lagged over them with PTFE coated fabric belts. That was 7 years ago, and after numerous patch repairs the entire belt needs to be replaced again. So much for the inexpensive

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Obsessive Compulsive Ways to Extend Expansion Joint Life

Obsessive, Compulsive Ways to Extend Expansion Joint Life

July 10, 2014

Driven to excellence in all things. I am the last man on the planet that still changes his own oil. Many of  my friends scoff at this quaint habit and present spreadsheets  and graphs comparing the cheap cost of the neighborhood quickie-lube. I am unmoved. I squeeze more life out of my engines by doing

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Metal Rectangles that Out Perform

Metal Rectangular Expansion Joints That Last

July 9, 2014

What works The most common metal rectangle expansion joint – the V-span profile with a single miter corner, doesn’t work. They’re lousy, lame. They have a fundamental design flaw. I hate them. Phew, now that I’ve gotten that off my chest, I feel much better. The world would be a much better place if all

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Protecting Piping From Anchor Failures

Protecting Piping From Anchor Failures

July 9, 2014

Don’t let expansion joints push you around. When plan A didn’t work as expected I recently read this advice – “Life is all about plan B”. It was on a Mary Engelbreit calendar. I am torn between the ethics of source disclosure, and possibly losing my man-card for referencing Mary Engelbreit material. Expansion joints do

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NDE Differences on Piping Welds

NDE On Welds

July 9, 2014

All vessel welds are not created equalQ: Why do longitudinal (long) welds often require more code inspection than circumferential (circ) welds? A: Because pressure stresses are twice as high in the long welds than in the circ welds. Circ vs. long = spheres vs. cylinders It’s true; for a pipe or vessel, the pressure stresses

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Cryogenic Properties of Stainless Steel Bellows

Cryogenic Properties of Stainless Steel Bellows

July 9, 2014

The Cold Facts Most everybody in the free world knows that stainless steel is a good material for high temperatures. It is also commonly used in very cold applications. Stainless steel not only has good properties at cryogenic temperatures – it is actually a BETTER material than it is at room temperature. The Cold War

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Maintaining 2 Ply Testable Bellows

Maintaining 2-ply Testable Bellows On Expansion Joint

July 9, 2014

Buying smart OK, so you paid the extra money and bought an expansion joint with a 2-ply testable bellows. You were wise, very wise – but keep that wisdom going by following some recommendations not normally found (or buried deep) in the other expansion joint manufacturers long and boring literature. This tribal knowledge is now

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Refurbished Expansion Joints

Refurbishing Old Expansion Joints

July 9, 2014

Faithful EJ RexIt’s been a good faithful expansion joint, giving you many years of reliable… and now its time to put it down. Saying goodbye can be hard, but it’s not always necessary. And no, this has nothing to do with http://www.oakridgebellows.com/wp-admin/edit.php?post_type=ttshowcasecloning. That old friend can be refurbished with a new bellows, maybe with even

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Avoiding Expansion Joint Installation Problems

Avoiding Expansion Joint Installation Problems

July 9, 2014

The piping system, pumps, and vessels are all installed. Commissioning day is a mere system pressure test away. Nothing left to do but pack up the tools and call it a project. The phone rings; it’s the field. The expansion joints have, well…expanded. The piping is also kicked out of alignment. Heads will roll, fingers

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Metallurgist Answers

Metallurgy Of Metal Bellows Failures

July 9, 2014

The Secret Life of Your Metallurgist Having more fun than you know, but at your expense The disturbing underworld So I accidently wandered into a Metallurgist convention at a hotel where I was staying. It was noisy and they were having an open mic joke hour. “Why couldn’t the metallurgist buy any snacks?”, I heard

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Insider Secrets of Bellows Repair

Insider Secrets To Expansion Joint Repair

July 9, 2014

Proceed with care I guess I should give the obligatory warning statement about how weld repairing bellows is specialized: it should only be attempted by professionals, don’t run with scissors, yadda, yadda. All true, but we both know end-users will, can, and have weld repaired thin gauge bellows, some with success and some with consequential

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Westinghouse Tap Caps

Westinghouse Tap Caps

October 10, 2017

Westinghouse Cross-Over Expansion Joint Alert Prevent Manage failure of the inner bellows ply It has already failed; you just don’t know it yet Stop what you are doing right now and go check your Westinghouse steam turbine cross-over expansion joint 2-ply bellows test ports to make sure they are not capped. Go ahead; I’ll wait.

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Protective Etal Bellows Covers

Improving Protective Covers

July 8, 2014

Elementary, my dear Watson The victim is sprawled out on the floor, cold-dead with a gaping gash across the bellows. The usual suspects have been brought in: Corrosion, the fatigue twins – Vibration and Flow, Squirm, and Installation Damage. “The killer is indeed in this very room!” I pronounce, wishing I had a pipe to

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Round Corner Metal Rectangular Expansion Joint (New)

Round Corner Metal Rectangular Expansion Joint (New)

December 18, 2014

Metal rectangular expansion joints with round corners and U-profiles significantly out-perform any other corner style, as demonstrated by this video. The more flexible a bellows, the higher its fatigue life. This video is of interest to design and maintenance engineers. This is a video that is of interest to design and maintenance engineers. Length: 0.57

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Metal Rectangular Expansion Joints

Metal Rectangular Expansion Joints

August 1, 2014

Are all metal rectangular expansion joints created equal? Not even close. Many after-market metal rectangles are made with a V-profile with a miter weld at the corners – these are flawed design features. The longest lasting designs have a U-profile with round corners. This is a video that is of interest to design and maintenance

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Camera Corner Bellows

Camera Corner Bellows

September 5, 2014

Camera corner metal rectangular expansion joints have proven to be problematic for end users. The design requires considerable amounts of welding in the corners which are a stress riser during deflection. In addition the tight pitch of the profile more easily traps debris. This is a video that is of interest to design, piping, vessel

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Inspecting Metal Bellows Damage

Inspecting Metal Bellows Damage

August 1, 2014

A metal bellows can be easily damaged if installers are not careful. The dents, arc strikes, and scratches are not always a cause for immediate panic. This is a video that is of interest to maintenance engineers, inspectors, pipefitters, and contractors. Length: 3:37

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Expansion Joint Liners

Expansion Joint Liners

August 1, 2014
Metal bellows expansion joints that have high internal flow need to be protected by an internal liner. The effects of high flow on an expansion joint are discussed. This is a video that is of interest to maintenance engineers and inspectors Length: 2:33 Read More
Why An Expansion Joint Works Part One

Why An Expansion Joint Works Part One

August 1, 2014

How does a thin bellows hold the same pressure as that of a thicker pipe? The hoop stress pressure of a pipe is derived and then a comparison is made to how it is calculated for a metal bellows. This is the basis for the equation found in both the ASME code and the EJMA

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Why An Expansion Joint Works Part Two

Why An Expansion Joint Works Part Two

August 1, 2014
How does a metal bellows flex? The theory of bellows deflections are discussed along with the EJMA (expansion joint manufacturers association) fatigue curves. A brief review is given as to how the EJMA fatigue curves were developed. A comparison is made between the deflection of a metal bellows verses that of a pipe loop for Read More
Metal Expansion Joint Installation

Metal Expansion Joint Installation

August 1, 2014
Guidelines are given for the correct installation steps for metal expansion joints. This is a video that is of interest to pipe fitters and maintenance engineers. Length: 5:21 Read More
EJMA verses ASME

EJMA verses ASME

August 1, 2014

The EJMA design guide and the ASME code have different design criteria for metal bellows cycle life. The history of the ASME B31.3, Section VIII, and EJMA fatigue curves are discussed along with practical recommendations for expansion joint cycle life specifications. This is a video that is of interest to design, piping, and vessel engineers.

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